Technical Introduction of Feed Ingredients Composition Database (FICD)

Feed Ingredients Composition Database involves the compilation of reliable information from a variety of documents and databases, and data obtained from the network of industry contacts in the feed industry in Asia and in Latin America on the chemical composition and nutritive value of about 300 feed ingredients used in aquaculture feeds in Asia. The database provides average key values for each ingredient. Most values in this database are the average values of many different data sources. The databases through a web-based interface that allows users to export the data in the format of CSV compatible with common feed formulation programs used by Asian feed manufacturers (Best Mix™, Format, etc.).

The data sources used in this database included information from published papers, books and online database. The major books and online sources are listed as the following.

Major references as sources of information:

1.         Abu, O. A., Tewe, O. O., Losel, D. M., & Onifade, A. A. (2000). Changes in lipid, fatty acids and protein composition of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) after solid-state fungal fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 72, 189–192.

2.         Adams, R. S., Kephart, K. B., Ishler, V. A., Hutchinson, L. J., & Roth, G. W. (1993). Mold and mycotoxin problems in livestock feeding. Penn State College of Agriculture Sciences, 1–17. Retrieved from

3.         ADM, Feed ingredients catalog.

4.         Arnold, L. K., & Choudhury, R. B. R. (1961). The fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil at various stages of solvent extraction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 38(2), 87–88.

5.         ARRAINA (Advanced Research Initiatives for Nutrition & Aquaculture), 2015. Feed Ingredients in Aquaculture 1st Technical Booklet.

6.         Aventine Renewable Energy Inc. (2003). PEKIN BREWERS DRIED YEAST 43 - P Nutritional Information, 3. Provide by Lukas Manomaitis, U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC),USSEC SEA Technical Director - Aquaculture.

7.         Becha, B. B., & Devi, S. S. (2013). Aflatoxin Levels in Feeds and Feed Ingredients of Livestock and Poultry in Kerala. J.Vet.Anim.Sci.44, 76–78.

8.         Behrman, E. J., & Gopalan, V. (2005). Cholesterol and Plants. Journal of Chemical Education, 82(12), 1791.

9.         Bell, J. G., McEvoy, J., Tocher, D. R., McGhee, F., Campbell, P. J., & Sargent, J. R. (2001). Replacement of Fish Oil with Rapeseed Oil in Diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Affects Tissue Lipid Compositions and Hepatocyte Fatty Acid Metabolism. The Journal of Nutrition, 131(5), 1535–1543.

10.     Belyea, R. (2004). Composition of corn and distillers dried grains with solubles from dry grind ethanol processing. Bioresource Technology, 94(3), 293–298.

11.     Bigogno, C., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Boussiba, S., Vonshak, A., & Cohen, Z. (2002). Lipid and fatty acid composition of the green oleaginous alga Parietochloris incisa, the richest plant source of arachidonic acid. Phytochemistry, 60, 497–503.

12.     Binder, E. M., Tan, L. M., Chin, L. J., Handl, J., & Richard, J. (2007). Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137, 265–282.

13.     Blagovi, B., Rup, J., Mesari, M., Georgi, K., & Mari, V. (2001). Lipid Composition of Brewer ’ s Yeast. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 39(3), 175–181.

14.     Blasi, D., Kuhl, G. L., Drouillard, J. S., Reed, C. L., Dionisia, M. T., Behnke, K. C., & Fairchild, F. J. (1998). Wheat Middlings - Compoisition, Feed Value and Storage Guidelines. Kansas State University Research and Extension. Retrieved from

15.     Blasi, D., Kuhl, G. L., Drouillard, J. S., Reed, C. L., Dionisia, M. T., Behnke, K. C., & Fairchild, F. J. (1998). Wheat Middlings - Compoisition, Feed Value and Storage Guidelines. Kansas State University Research and Extension. Retrieved from

16.     Bureau,D.P. (2007). Fish Meal Replacement-opportunities for rendered products (Table 3 and table 5).

17.     Burkwall Jr., M., P. & Glass, R.L. (1965). The fatty acids of wheat and its milled products. Cereal Chemistry 42, 236-246.

18.     Calhoun, M.C. Cottonseed Meal and Whole Cottonseed : Optimizing Their Use in Dairy Cattle Rations. Emeritus Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A & M University System San Angelo , TX., 1–30.

19.     Camara, M., Del Valle, M., Torija M.E., Castilho, C. (2013). Fatty acid composition of tomato pomace. In Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Processing Tomato, Hartz, T.K., Acta Hort 542, ISHS 2001, pp.175-181.

20.     Castell, A. G., Guenter, W., & Igbasan, F. A. (1996). Nutritive value of peas for nonruminant diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 60, 209–227.

21.     Chempro. Fatty acid composition of some major oils. Top-Notch technology in production of oils and fats. Retrieved from

22.     Cheng, Z. J., & Hardy, R. W. (2002). Apparent digestibility coefficients and nutritional value of cottonseed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 212(1-4), 361–372.

23.     Chiba, L. I. (2009). Diet Formulation & Common Feed Ingredients. Animal Nutrition Handbook, 481–531.

24.     Chiba, L.I. (2014). Diet Formulation and Common Feed Ingredients in Animal Nutrition Handbook, Section 18: Diet Formulation & Feed Ingredients, pp. 575–633.

25.     Chin, L.J., & Tan, L.M. (2006). High occurrence of mycotoxins in Asian feedstuffs. Feed Tech, 13–16.

26.     Chowdhury, K., Banu, L.A, Khan, S., & Latif, A. (2007). Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Edible Oil. Bangladesh Journal Science Ind. Research, 42(3), 311–316.

27.     Clarke, E., & Wiseman, J. (2007). Effects of extrusion conditions on trypsin inhibitor activity of full fat soybeans and subsequent effects on their nutritional value for young broilers. British Poultry Science, 48(6), 703–12.

28.     Clements, S. R., & Darnell, B. (1980). Myo-inositol development content of common of a high-myo-inositol foods : The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33, 1954–1967.

29.     Copeman, L. a., Stoner, A. W., Ottmar, M. L., Daly, B., Parrish, C. C., & Eckert, G. L. (2012). Total Lipids, Lipid Classes, and Fatty Acids of Newly Settled Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus): Comparison of Hatchery-Cultured and Wild Crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research, 31(1), 153–165.

30.     CVB. (2009). Feeding standards, feeding advices and nutritional values of feeding ingredients, 34. Retrieved from

31.     Debnath, D., Sahu, N. P., Pal,  a. K., Baruah, K., Yengkokpam, S., & Mukherjee, S. C. (2005). Present scenario and future prospects of phytase in aquafeed - Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 18(12), 1800–1812.

32.     del Río, J. C., Prinsen, P., & Gutiérrez, A. (2013). Chemical composition of lipids in brewer’s spent grain: A promising source of valuable phytochemicals. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(2), 248–254.

33.     Distillers Grains Technology Council, Composition Analysis of DDGS.University of Louisville.

34.     Dowd, M. K., Boykin, D. L., Meredith, W. R., Campbell, B. T., Bourland, F. M., Gannaway, J. R., Glass, K.M., Zhang, J. (2010). Fatty Acid Profiles of Cottonseed Genotypes from the National Cotton Variety Trials. The Journal of Cotton Science, 73, 64–73.

35.     Drew, M. D., Borgeson, T. L., & Thiessen, D. L. (2007). A review of processing of feed ingredients to enhance diet digestibility in finfish. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 138(2), 118–136.

36.     Eeckhout, W., & De Paepe, M. (1994). Total phosphorus, phytate-phosphorus and phytase activity in plant feedstuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 47(1-2), 19–29.

37.     European Commision (2000). Dioxin contamination of feedingstuffs and their contribution to the contamination of food of animal origin. Assessment, 105.

38.     Evonik AminoDat4.0 software, provided by Dr. Claudia Figueiredo Silva, Senior Manager Technical Support Aquaculture, Nutrition & Care, Evonik.

39.     FAO (1992). Legume Trees and Other Fodder Trees as Protein Sources for Livestock. Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation, held at the Malaysian Agricultural Research, and Development Institute (MARDI), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14–18 October 1991, Edited by, Speedy, A. and Pugliese, P.L.

40.     FAO. (1995). Sorghum and millets in human nutrition.

41.     Fedak, G., & De la Roche, I. (1977). Lipid and fatty acid composition of barley kernels. Can.J.Plant Sci. 57, 257-260.

42.     Feedipedia .

43.     Feedstuffs 2015. Ingredient analysis table: 2015 edition.

44.     Fernandes, P., & Cabral, J. M. S. (2007). Phytosterols: Applications and recovery methods. Bioresource Technology, 98(12), 2335–2350.

45.     Ferrando, R. (1983). Natural antinutritional factors present in European plant proteins, Qual Plant Foods Hum Nutr 32, 455–467.

46.     Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2004). Mycotoxin regulations in 2003 and current developments. Worldwide Regulations for Mycotoxins in Food and Feed in 2003, 9–28. Retrieved from

47.     Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2005). Chapter 6. Dietary Carbohydrates: Sugars and Starches. In Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Proein, and Amino Acids (macronutrients), the National Academies Press,pp.265–338. Retrieved from

48.     Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2005). Chapter 8. Dietary Fats: Total Fat and Fatty Acids. In Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients), the National Academies Press, pp.422–541.

49.     Francis, G., Makkar, H. P. S., & Becker, K. (2001). Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199, 197-227.

50.     Galliard, T. (1973). Lipids of potato tubers. I. lipid and fatty acid composition of tubers from different varieties of potato. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 24, 617–622.

51.     Glencross, B. D., Booth, M., & Allan, G. L. (2007). A feed is only as good as its ingredients - A review of ingredient evaluation strategies for aquaculture feeds. Aquaculture Nutrition, 13(1), 17–34.

52.     González-Vega, J. C., Kim, B. G., Htoo, J. K., Lemme,  a., & Stein, H. H. (2011). Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 89(11), 3617–3625.

53.     Gosch, B. J., Magnusson, M., Paul, N. a., & de Nys, R. (2012). Total lipid and fatty acid composition of seaweeds for the selection of species for oil-based biofuel and bioproducts. GCB Bioenergy, 4(6), 919–930.

54.     Grøgaard, H. C. (2011). Extraction and Analysis of Marine Lipids with Emphasis on Phospholipids- Evaluation and Improvement of Methods, (August), 180. Department of Biotechnology thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Retrieved from

55.     Gutierrez, L. E., & Silva, R. C. M. Da. (1993). Fatty acid composition of cane molasses and yeasts. Scientia Agricola, 50(3), 473–477.

56.     Hertrampf, J.W., Piedad-Pascual, F. (2000). Handbook on ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4020-1527-4, ISBN 978-94-011-4018-8 (eBook), DOI 10.1007/978-94-011-4018-8.

57.     Hardy, R. W. (2000). New developments in aquatic feed ingredients, and potential of enzyme supplements. Avances En Nutrition Acuicola V. Memorias Del V Simposium Internacional de Nutricion Acuicola, 216–226.

58.     Hardy, R. W. (2010). Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquaculture Research, 41(5), 770–776.

59.     Hay, C. R., & Bran, C. (2009). 2009 Feed Composition Tables (all values except dry matter are shown on a dry matter basis).

60.     Herrman, T. (1955). Mycotoxins in Feed Grains and Ingredients. Agriculture, 1–8.

61.     Hixson, S. M., & Parrish, C. C. (2014). Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua ) and their effects on growth , tissue lipid classes , and fatty acids 1, 1055–1067.

62.     Feed Composition Tables2009.

63.     Itoh, T., Tamura, T., & Matsumoto, T. (1973). Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 50(4), 122–125.

64.     Jensen, N. ., Fiskeindustri, E., & Denmark, E. (1990). Quality of fishmeal: Specifications and uses in aquaculture and fur farming. International By-Product Conference, April 1990, Anchorage, Alaska.

65.     Jumat, S., Mohd Noor, D. A., Nazrizawati, A.T., Mohd Firdaus, M.Y., & Noraishah, A. (2010). Fatty Acid Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Castor Bean Ricinus communis L . Seed Oil. Sains Malaysiana, 39(5), 761–764.

66.     Junior, R., W. (2011). Development of alternative-protein-based diets for the intensive production of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus L., Auburn University, Master Degree thesis pp.34.

67.     Kamm, W., Dionisi, F., Hischenhuber, C., & Engel, K.-H. (2001). Authenticity Assessment of Fats and Oils. Food Reviews International, 17(3), 249–290.

68.     Kansas State University Research and Extension. Wheat middlings, composition, feeding values, and storage guidelines.

69.     Kaushik, S. J., & Seiliez, I. (2010). Protein and amino acid nutrition and metabolism in fish: Current knowledge and future needs. Aquaculture Research, 41(3), 322–332.

70.     Kavitha, O., Anandan, R., S. M. and V. N. (2003). Biochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Common Fish Feed Ingredients of Plant and Animal Origin. Fishery Technology 40 (2), 121 -126.

71.     Kavitha, O., Anandan, R., S. M. and V. N. (2003). Biochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Common Fish Feed Ingredients of Plant and Animal Origin. Fishery Technology, 40(2), 121-126.

72.     Kawasaki, K., Ooizumi, T., Hayashi, S., Hayashi, K. (1994). Lipid class and fatty acid composition of liver of firefly squid Watasenia scintillans. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 60(2), 247–251.

73.     Kovalsky, P. (2013). Which mycotoxins should we expect in poultry feed ? Mycotoxin update 2013, BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey 2013.

74.     Kumar, V., Barman, D., Kumar, K., Kumar, V., Mandal, S. C., & Clercq, E. De. (2012). Anti-nutritional Factors in Plant Feedstuffs Used in Aquafeeds. World Aquaculture, 64–68.

75.     Lechner, M., Reiter, B., & Lorbeer, E. (1999). Determination of tocopherols and sterols in vegetable oils by solid-phase extraction and subsequent capillary gas chromatographic analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 857(1-2), 231–238.

76.     Li, X., Rezaei, R., Li, P., & Wu, G. (2011). Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets. Amino Acids, 40(4), 1159–1168.

77.     Li, X., Zhao, L., Fan, Y., Jia, Y., Sun, L., Ma, S., …, Zhang, J. (2014). Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed ingredients and complete feeds obtained from the Beijing region of China. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 5(1), 37.

78.     Lim, C., & Yildirim-Aksoy, M. (2008). Distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in fish feeds. The 8th International Symposium on tilapia in aquaculture, 67–82. Retrieved from

79.     Limsuwatthanathamrong, M., Sooksai, S., Chunhabundit, S., Noitung, S., Ngamrojanavanich, N., & Petsom, A. (2012). Fatty Acid Profile and Lipid Composition of Farm-raised and Wild-caught Sandworms, Perinereis nuntia, the Diet for Marine Shrimp Broodstock. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences.

80.     Lombaert, G. A., Pellaers, P., Roscoe, V., Mankotia, M., Neil, R., & Scott, P. M. (2003). Mycotoxins in infant cereal foods from the Canadian retail market. Food Addit.Contam, 20(5), 494–504.

81.     Lorenz, Klaus; Maga, J. (1972). Triticale and Wheat Flour Studies : Compositions of Fatty Acids, Carbonyls, and Hydrocarbons. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 20(4), 769–772.

82.     Mahmoud, A. L. (1993). Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin content in poultry feedstuff ingredients. J Basic Microbiol, 33(2), 101–104. Retrieved from

83.     Maina, J. G., Beames, R. M., Higgs, D., Mbugua, P. N., Iwama, G., & Kisia, S. M. (2002). Digestibility and feeding value of some feed ingredients fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture Research, 33(11), 853–862.

84.     Makkar, H. P. S., & Becker, K. (1999). Plant Toxins and Detoxification Methods to Improve Feed Quality of Tropical Seeds. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 12(3), 467-480. doi:

85.     Masagounder, K., Doranalli, K., Wiltafsky, M., and Channarayapatna, G.(2014). Nutritional quality of Indian rapeseed meal, presented on 2nd International Conference on Animal & Dairy Science. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 5(3):33.

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87.     Meisinger, D. (2010). National swine nutrition guide: Tables on Nutrient Recommendations, Ingredient Composition, and Use Rates. US Pork Center of Excellence. Iowa State University, 1–40. Retrieved from

88.     Méndez, E. (1997). Seasonal Changes in the Lipid Classes and Fatty Acid Compositions of Hake (Merluccius hubbsi) Liver Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 74(9), 1173–1175.

89.     Messad, F., Létourneau-Montminy, M. P., Charbonneau, E., Sauvant, D., & Guay, F. (2015). Prediction of standardized ileal digestibility and essential amino acid content of ingredients in swine: A meta-analysis. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 207, 204–221.

90.     Miller, J. D., & Richardson, S. N. (2013). Mycotoxins in Canada: A perspective for 2013. Regulatory Governance Initiative 1-33.

91.     Mišurcová, L., Kráčmar, S., Klejdus, B., & Vacek, J. (2010). Nitrogen content, dietary Fiber, and digestibility in algal food products. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 28(1), 27–35.

92.     Murcia, M. A., & Rincón, F. (1991). Fatty acid composition of pea ( Pisum sativum ) L . var . Citrina ) during growth, Grasas y Aceites, 444–449.

93.     Mustafa, A.F., McKinnon J. J. and Christensen D. A.(2000).The nutritive value of thin stillage and wet distillers' grains for ruminants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80 (5), 607–613.

94.     Nargis, A., Ahmed, K. N., Ahmed, G. M., Hossain, M. A., & Rahman, M. (2006). Nutritional Value and Use of Shrimp Head Waste as Fish Meal. Analysis, 41, 63–66.

95.     Nates, S. F., & McKenney, C. L. (2000). Growth, lipid class and fatty acid composition in juvenile mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii ) following larval exposure to Fenoxycarb, insect juvenile hormone analog. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP, 127(3), 317–25. Retrieved from

96.     Nates, S. F., & Ph, D. (2011). production Fat Components , Energy in Poultry By-Product Meal Provide Valuable Nutrients To Shrimp, (December), 26–27.

97.     National Research Council 2011. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.

98.     Nelson, T.S., Ferrara, L.W., Storer, N.L. (1968). Phytate phosphorus content of feed ingredients derived from plants. Poultry Science 47(4), 1372–1374.

99.     Newman, M.. Formulation : Beyond the database. U.S. Soybean Export Council (USSEC)

100.  Nikolić, N., Radulović, N., Momcilović, B., Nikolić, G., Lazić, M., & Todorovic, Z. (2008). Fatty acids composition and rheology properties of wheat and wheat and white or brown rice flour mixture. European Food Research and Technology, 227(5), 1543–1548.

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102.  Nurmi, T. (2012). Variation of phytosterols and steryl ferulates in wheat grains and fractions.

103.  OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds (2008)26.Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of tomato: key food and feed nutrients, aniti-nutrients, toxicants and allergen.

104.  Official Release of Feed composition and nutritive values in China 2013 (version 24), China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House.

105.  Økland, H. M. W., Stoknes, I. S., Remme, J. F., Kjerstad, M., & Synnes, M. (2005). Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranchs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 140(3), 437–443.

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121.  Roscoe, V., Lombaert, G. A., Huzel, V., Neumann, G., Melietio, J., Kitchen, D., … Scott, P. M. (2008). Mycotoxins in breakfast cereals from the Canadian retail market: A 3-year survey. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 25(3), 347–355.

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123.  Ryan, E., Galvin, K., O’Connor, T. P., Maguire, A. R., & O’Brien, N. M. (2007). Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 62, 85–91.

124.  Sampath, A. (2009). Chemical characterization of camelina seed oil. Master degree thesis for Graduate school-New Brunswick Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.

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